Columbian Union (GC)

From Alternate History
Columbian Union
Unión Colombina  (Spanish)
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: "Dios y Libertad" (Spanish)
"God and Freedom"
Anthem: ¡Venid, Colombinos!  (Spanish)
Come, Columbians!
CapitalSanta Marta
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Largest city Santafé
Official languages Spanisha
Recognised regional languages 132 ethnic languages and dialects. English is also official in the Mosquitos.
Ethnic groups (2005)
Demonym Columbian
Government Federative semi-presidential constitutional republic
 •  President of the Union Rafael Trujillo
 •  Federal Prime Minister Lina María de Greiff
 •  Chairman of the Parliament Evelyn Fernández Rincón
 •  Chairman of the Supreme Court Jhon Bastidas
Legislature Parliament
 •  Upper house Senate
 •  Lower house Legislative Assembly
Independence from Spain
 •  Declared 10 August 1823 
 •  Recognized 7 May 1828 
 •  Current constitution 16 December 1909 
Area
 •  Total 3,090,400 km2 (6th)
1,193,210 sq mi
 •  Water (%) 8.8 (17th)
Population
 •  July 2016 estimate 112,500,000 (10th)
 •  2010 census 104,356,768
 •  Density 36.4/km2 (176rd)
94.28/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2016 estimate
 •  Total $1,750  billion (13th)
 •  Per capita $15,555[1] (75th)
GDP (nominal) 2016 estimate
 •  Total $870  billion (16nd)
 •  Per capita $7,733[1]
Gini (2015)Steady 42.0
medium
HDI (2014)Increase 0.755[2]
high · 75th
Currency Peso (CUP)
Time zone CUT (UTC−5b)
Date format dd−mm−yyyy (CE)
Drives on the right
Calling code +57
Internet TLD .cu
a. Although the Colombian Constitution specifies Spanish (Castellano) as the official language in all Colombian territory, other languages spoken in the country by ethnic groups -- approximately 132 languages -- each is also official in its own territory. English is also official in the state of Mosquitos.
b. The official Columbian time is controlled and coordinated by the National Institute of Metrology.

The Columbian Union' (/kəˈlʌmbjən/ kə-LUM-biən; Spanish: [uˈnjon kolomˈbina]), also called Columbia (Spanish: About this sound Colombia ),[Note 1] is a transcontinental country largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America including a shared island in the Caribbean and one exclave. Main continental Columbia shares a border to the northwest with Costa Rica, to the east with Guyana to the south with Brazil and Peru.[3] The exclave Mosquitos Department shares a border to the west with Guatemala, and to the north with Honduras.[3] The Española exclave shares a border to the west with Haiti.[3] It shares its maritime limits with British West Caribbean, Turks and Caicos, Virgin Islands, Windward Islands, Netherland Antilles, and Aruba.[4] It is a federative, constitutional republic comprising 14 states. The territory of what is now Colombia was originally inhabited by indigenous peoples including the Taino, Muisca, Caribs, and Quechua.

Christopher Columbus landed on the Western part of Hispaniola, in what is now Haiti, on December 5, 1492. In 1496 Bartholomew Columbus, Christopher's brother, built the city of Santo Domingo, Western Europe's first permanent settlement in the "New World." and initiated a period of conquest and colonization ultimately creating the Viceroyalty of New Granada, with its capital at Bogotá. Independence from Spain was won in 1828 the "Gran Colombia" Federation was dissolved. What is now Colombia and Panama emerged as the Republic of New Granada. The new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation (1858), and then the United States of Colombia (1863), before the Republic of Colombia was finally declared in 1886. Panama seceded in 1903. Since the 1960s, the country has suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict, which escalated in the 1990s, but then decreased from 2005 onward.[5] Colombia is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse countries in the world giving rise to a rich cultural heritage. This has also been influenced by Colombia's varied geography, and the imposing landscape of the country has resulted in the development of very strong regional identities. The urban centres are mostly located in the highlands of the Andes mountains.

Colombian territory also encompasses Amazon rainforest, tropical grassland and both Caribbean and Pacific coastlines. Ecologically, it is one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries, and the most densely biodiverse of these per square kilometer.[6] Colombia is a middle power and a regional actor with the fourth largest economy in Latin America,[1] is part of the CIVETS group of six leading emerging markets and is an accessing member to the OECD.[7] Colombia has a diversified economy with macroeconomic stability and favorable growth prospects in the long run.[8][9]

Name and Etymology

History

Geography

Columbia Union (GC).png

Government and Politics

The Columbian Union is a semi-presidential federative republic. The President of the Union is elected by a college formed by representatives of each state or federal territory, while the Federal Prime Minister is appointed by the President from the leaders of the parties represented in the Parliament, and ratified or vetoed by the Parliament.

Governance

The President of the Union acts as Chief of State. The President has conditional veto on any act by the Parliament or the government, can call for anticipated elections, can prioritize policies, and acts as commander in chief of the military (although the President cannot declare war). The President of the Union can also appoint interim State Presidents.

The Federal Prime Minister is the leader and chairman of the Federal Cabinet and acts as Chief of Government. The Federal Prime Minister and the Federal Cabinet are responsible for executing the federal budget and manage policies.

The Parliament has two chambers. The higher chamber or Senate, is composed by representatives of each State or significantly inhabited Federal dependency. Senators are elected by the respective state or territorial legislative assembly for a term of 6 years. Each State elects one Senator each 2 years, and each territory each 3 years, or earlier if a vacant occur. A Senator cannot serve over 20 years, nor be elected if his full term would overlap those 20 years. The President of the Union cannot veto Senators or call for anticipated elections in the Senate.

The lower chamber is the Legislative Assembly. Each State or Territory is represented proportionally to its population. Approximately 1 representative for each 250,000 inhabitants. Members of the Assembly (diputados) are elected by popular vote according to the rules fixed by each state. The elections are held the same day in the whole Union. The date is agreed by the Prime Minister and the chairman of the Assembly but cannot exceed 5 years plus 1 week from the previous election, or dictated by the President of the Union in case of crisis. This date (general election date), people also vote for the electoral college that choses the next president.

The Supreme Court of the Union is composed by 15 judges, who serve until they complete 20 years, reach age 75 or cannot perform their duty for death or disease. The President of the Union appoint any vacant judge, which is ratified or vetoed by the Senate.

State Governance

Each State must have an elected Chief of State (State President) and an elected Head of Government (State Governor), which might be the same person (actually, in all states the role is one and the same), a unicameral or bicameral legislative college (only in Venezuela and Maracaibo the college is bicameral), and a Supreme Court. Each state is autonomous on how they elect their representatives.

Military

Subdivisions

States of the Columbian Union.png

The Colombian Union is formed by

State Capital inhabitants
Antioquia Rionegro 6,532,670
Cauca Popayán 12,270,100
Cundinamarca Santafé 13,935,640
Ecuador Quito 7,897,750
Española Santo Domingo 10,208,560
Guayana Ciudad Guayana 1,829,430
Guayas Guayaquil 7,708,490
Istmo Panamá 3,905,430
Magdalena Ciénaga 2,854,180
Maracaibo Maracaibo 9,272,270
Mosquitos Bluefields 974,750
Puerto Rico San Juan 3,373,900
Santander Cartagena 7,030,660
Sucre Cumaná 3,699,660
Trinidad Puerto España 1,265,350
Venezuela Caracas 16,637,840
Territory Capital Inhabitants Type
Capital District Santa Marta 1,015,250 Federal District
Amazonas Iquitos 1,181,380 Unincorporated Territory
Galápagos 24,360 Special Territory
Islas Vírgenes 100,720 Special Territory
Orinoco Puerto Ayacucho 610,480 Unincorporated Territory
Territorios Insulares 500 Federal Territory

Economy

Infrastructure

Society

Culture

Notes

  1. IPA transcription of "Colombia": [koˈlombja].

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named imf2
  2. "2015 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2015. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Land_borders
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  6. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Biodiversity_of_Colombia
  7. Steve Slater (27 April 2010). "After BRICs, look to CIVETS for growth – HSBC CEO". Reuters. 
  8. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Colombianeconomy
  9. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named strongpolicyframework