From Austrian Partition

A few better reforms in the Ottoman Empire after Crimean War, leading to a greater amount of self-determination to the Christian majority provinces, and a de facto independence to the principalities of Serbia, Montenegro, Wallachia and Moldavia. The aim of the politics was to defuse nationalism and French and Russian intervention.

In 1876, Serbia, Montenegro, and Romania (Wallachia and Moldavia) plead for independence. After some armed skirmishes between the Ottoman and Serbian armies, a treaty is signed. Serbia would be granted independence under a commonwealth treaty, Serbia should remind neutral if Turkey were attacked by an outside power, and the Ottomans should support Serbia if attacked. Muslims, Jewish and Catholics who have lived in Serbian territory for over a generation should be allowed to stay as Serbian subjects. Newer settlers should return to Turkey proper. Similar grants are given to Montenegro and Romania (1877). Bulgaria is recognized as a principality on path to a similar independence.

1878, The German Empire and the Austria-Hungary empire sign a secret defensive alliance were they attacked by Russia or France.

1879, Russia declares war to Turkey given some events in the Caucasus (and regarding the status of Armenians). The war ends with the treaty of Berlin, in which there is no clear winner. The principality of Armenia is created under similar conditions than Bulgaria.

1882, Italy signs the Triple Alliance with Austria-Hungary and Germany.

1894, war starts between the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary. Austria-Hungary marches over Bosnia and occupies it. In the Treaty of Vienna it is granted the Bosnia will de jure belong to the Ottomans but will be occupied by Austria-Hungary.

1897, the Zionist movement begun to settle in Ottoman Syria.

1898, Poles rebel in Austria-Hungary’s Silesia. Russia supports the Poles causing A-H to declare war to Russia (June). Triple Alliance does not take immediate effect as A-H was the first to attack. A-H have some important advances, but by Octuber, Russia regains initiative and occupies Silesia. Germany declares war to Russia and France declares war to Germany. Germany concentrates to a defensive plan on both fronts. Despite an initial advance of France against Alsace-Loraine (controlled by the Germans), the western theater becomes a low intensity one. Most action occurs on the eastern theater. Italy does not join the war.

1899, armistice is reached on July, with a minor redraw in the borders which favor Russia against Germany. German focuses on a more close alliance with Russia to prevent further incidents.

1908, Young Turks Revolution pretends the creation of a secular republic. The method is mostly political grassroots but some low intensity violence is also carried on.

1910, Bulgaria and Armenia are granted independence within the Turkish commonwealth. Bulgaria as a kingdom and Armenia as a republic.

1911, Austria-Hungary annexes Bosnia. Serbia and Italy (as well as the Ottoman Empire) oppose the annexation. Diplomacy fails and Italy, Serbia, and Turkey declare war to Austria-Hungary in May. A-H cannot keep Bosnia and has problems repealing Italian advances. A-H shows a complete lack of commandship. France joins the war in August in behalf to Austria-Hungary to level the situation, and in Support of Albanian nationalism. Germany, after reassurance that Russia would not attack, joins the war in October against A-H and France.

While A-H slowly crumbles during the winter, the German-French war intensifies. Britain support the French but does not formally joins the war. In the Mediterranean France has the upper hand against Ottoman and Italian navies. In February France Invades Belgium and moves against Germany (who were preparing their own invasion of Belgium), this causes Britain to stop their support to France and give an ultimatum. A-H surrenders in April, after Italian and German troops took Vienna, and Germany and Italy concentrates against France. The Ottomans are crippled by their internal situation, particularly the escalation of actions by the Young Turks.

France loses initiative and by December 1912, Germany has invaded Belgium and is fighting on French soil, as well as the Italians. France surrenders in January.

1913, Treaty of Versailles. The partition of Austria is recognized. Austria proper and Bohemia are annexed by Germany. Italy annexes South Tyrol, Dalmatia and other A-H territories in the Adriatic. Serbia gets control of Bosnia and other linguistically affine territories from A-H. The non-partitioned part of A-H becomes the Kingdom of Hungary. The whole Alsace-Lorain is confirmed as German. France cedes Tunisia to Italy. Belgium is restored. An independent Albania is proposed, but not confirmed as Turkey is absent in the treaties.

The Ottoman sultanate ends. The Young Turks proclaim the Republic of Turkey and are willing to recognize Albania and Egypt as independent, renounce any claim on Bosnia, and renegotiate the treaties with Montenegro, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria and Armenia. They also seek to negotiate the status of Christians in Macedonia, Christians and Jews in Syria, and Arabs. Negotiations begins with the Greeks. They also declare to continue the last Turkish policies regarding the straits (open for any neutral ship in war or peace).

Autonomy and self-rule are granted to Macedonia, Lebanon, Israel, Kurdistan, Mesopotamia, and Jordan, which would be granted full independence within the Turkish commonwealth, which was renegotiated and signed with Montenegro, Serbia, and Bulgaria. Romania and Armenia refused to sign. Jerusalem was granted a special status.

1920, Communist revolution in France.

1924, French civil war ends with Communist victory.

1934, Spanish civil war starts as conservatives reject the electoral victory of the Spanish Communist Party. Council’s Republic of France support the elected government.

1939, Communist victory in Spain. Spain becomes a Council’s Republic.

1940-43, Turkish self-rule states are confirmed independence: Albania and Jordan as kingdoms. Macedonia, Lebanon, Israel, Kurdistan and Iran as republics. The Special Cities (Istanbul, Jerusalem, Mecca) become Free Cities with some dependency from Ankara.

1941-1944, Communist Parties and Worker Councils in Italy, Netherlands and Germany begins a series of strokes, manifestations and plain civil wars (Italy) France is supporting these communist uprisings. French supported communist uprisings also occur in Latin America and in European Colonies. (France has been granting some of her colonies Council’s Republic status after ensuring loyal leaders).

1944 (February) the Worker’s Council Party of Belgium takes over the government and declare Belgium as a Council’s Republic.

1944 (June), after crushing the German Worker’s Party and its uprisings, Germany finds evidence of France directly supporting it and declares it casus belli. With the approval of the United Kingdom (who is fighting French supporting rebels in her colonies), German launches an invasion of Belgium and France, aiming to overthrown the communist governments (not for territorial gains).

While Belgium falls quickly and the Germans advanced to Paris, French Partisans begin a guerrilla war tactics, while the government relocates further South.

In November, the Italian government falls to the Communists, and the newly declared Council’s Republic of Italy declares war to Germany.

In December, the United Kingdom officially joins the European war by setting a blockade to France and Italy. Spain declares war to the UK and Germany.

France and Italy combine conventional warfare with guerrilla tactics and sabotage. Germany has an internal front. In February the UK commit ground troops in Belgium and Germany controlled France.

May, massive streak in the UK. Worker’s councils demand the UK to withdraw from the war. The UK government declares Worker’s councils as treason, and declares martial law. Soon the UK is involved in a civil war.

The USA takes measures to ensure the no Worker’s council or similar institution could bring the chaos present in the UK. Japan and Canada follow suit (although Canadians with less repressive measures).

In August, the UK withdraw her ground troops in Europe to reinforce the front front, but keeps the naval blockades.

The US keeps its support to Germany and the UK, and cooperates with the naval blockades to the Council’s Republics and allies, but does not declare war.